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2015|16 Annual Report Fraunhofer IGB

1 2 Conventional rapeseed processing Processing of rapeseed in Europe is currently done in conven- tional oil mills and consists of press cycles and post-extraction processing of the press cake using n-hexane to increase the oil yield. Rapeseed oil is the primary product of value in this process. The technologies that have been optimized over the past decades facilitate maximal extraction of the oil. The solid residue from the extraction process, i.e. the press cake, is a byproduct marketed as conventional animal feed. Valuable biologically active constituents contained in rapeseed, such as sinapinic acid, phytic acid, and tocopherol, go unutilized since they cannot be extracted natively using the conventional method. As a result, there is hardly any potential with con- ventional oil mills to realize any increased value. Nevertheless, development of the technology to hull the seeds in recent years has achieved the means to minimize the proportion of anti-nutritive compounds, coloring agents, bittering agents, and fibrous components, so that the uality of the oil as well as the press cake can be improved [1]. Conventional pressing processes using a traditional oil mill are not able to be used with the hulled rapeseed due to its commensurately low pro- portion of hulls, though. Oil seed processing for industry Having set the goal of utilizing domestic resources more ef- fectively, such specialized rapeseed meal and protein as well as other valuable constituents should be transformed into value-added products and lead to diversification of the prod- uct palette into higher-priced market segments. As a result of this situation, there is considerable market potential in the oil seed processing industry. The extraction of new potential value, as it were, can lead to a reduction in the dependence of the branch on biodiesel production and open up new markets in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. Native pulping and extraction process Beginning with hulled rapeseeds, a pulping and extraction process was developed using ethanol as a mild extraction agent with which the constituents could be recovered. Cellular breakdown of the seed was accomplished using a rotor-stator system in order to achieve as complete an extraction of oil as possible during the subsequent multiple extraction cycles. The advantage of the process lies in the fact that the expressed oil can be phase-separated by means of energy-efficient cooling in the ethanol rather than having to recover it through distil- lation. Rapeseed meal as well as an extract mixture contain- ing secondary constituents can be recovered as additional products. Comprehensive commercialization of rapeseed The rapeseed oil recovered corresponds in quality to pre- refined oil omplete refining in order to introduce it as an edible oil is accordingly not absolutely necessary. The de-oiled rapeseed concentrate is nearly colorless and contains more than 50 percent protein. In addition, the tiny proportions of sinapinic acid and glucosinolates permit it to be processed further into high-quality animal feed and rapeseed protein products. Sinapinic acid, phospholipids, oligosaccharides, phenolic compounds as well as glucosinolates were able to be concentrated from the extract isolate mix of the oil and etha- nol. The rapeseed hulls are rich in lignin (about 30 percent) that is available for further commercial utilization of the mate- rial. The research results are of great interest to the oil seed and processing industries. A joint process patent (“Verfahren 96 RAPESEED BIOREFINERY – VALUABLE MATERIALS FROM RAPESEED Marcus Zang, Sandra Franke, Daniela Pufky-Heinrich CHEMISTRY 12